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The Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus is essential to understanding the cultural underpinnings of the insatiable market demands for sea cucumber and what drives sea cucumber trade. It also provides biological information and aquaculture techniques that can be adapted to other species, making it a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners involved in sea cucumber harvesting, aquaculture, and conservation.

Author Biography Hongsheng Yang has long been engaged in research on the biology and ecology of sea cucumber, ecological immunology, facilities and techniques for culture and stock enhancement of sea cucumber and artificial reef evaluation and resource restoration techniques. He participated in drafting many national strategy planning documents including the "Eleventh Five-Year plan", "Twelfth Five-Year Plan", "Marine agriculture" special plan of the Ministry of Science and Technology and "Conservation and sustainable use of marine biological resources", the National Ocean and Technology Development Strategy, Program for Marine Development by Reliance on Science and Technology and several other regional development strategy plans of Shandong Province and Qingdao City.

He has published over papers, authorized more than 20 patents and presided over formulating a national industry standard. Annie Mercier is leading a research program focused on fundamental and applied aspects of benthic invertebrate ecology at the Department of Ocean Sciences of Memorial University Canada.

To date, she has published over peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and technical papers, and she has co-edited 2 scientific books. Prior to her faculty position at Memorial University, Annie Mercier was conducting research in the Indo-Pacific islands. Collaborations have been established with researchers and laboratories in these and other countries and, to this day, they continue to work on sea cucumber ecology and management in Canada and abroad.

Aside from being passionate scientists and fierce advocates of marine resources conservation, the husband and wife team have developed a solid reputation as writers-photographers. Their abundantly illustrated articles on wildlife, diving, aquarium hobby, travel destinations and environmental issues have been published in dozens of magazines around the world. They also write popular books and are periodically involved in the production of film documentaries. With fast shipping, low prices, friendly service and over 1,, in stock items - you're bound to find what you want, at a price you'll love!

The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus : history, biology and aquaculture

Please view eBay estimated delivery times at the top of the listing. We are unable to deliver faster than stated. International deliveries will take weeks. NOTE: We are unable to offer combined shipping for multiple items purchased. In all four pair of comparison, genes were found to be expressed differently. Global hypometabolism was found to be occurred in the slow growing population, based on which the hypothesis was raised that growth retardation in individual growth variation of sea cucumber is one type of dormancy which is used to be against to adverse circumstances.

Besides, the pathways such as ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were enriched in the maintenance of cell and tissue structure and communication. Further, SSRs, SNPs and ins-dels were detected in the current study providing an extensive set of data for future studies of genetic mapping and selective breeding. In summary, these results will provides deep insight into the molecular basis of individual growth variation in marine invertebrates, and be valuable for understanding the physiological differences of growth process.

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This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The version described in this paper is the first version, GFKU The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus belongs to family Holothuroidea with nutritional and supposed medicinal properties [ 1 ].

Ocean Sciences

As a dominant aquaculture species in china, its aquaculture industry has grown rapidly over recent years. The annual production of sea cucumber had reached , tons in China by , with the culture area exceeding one million acres and a production value over 3,,, dollars [ 2 , 3 ]. Nevertheless, serious individual growth variation is often found in both nature and culture populations of sea cucumber. Individual growth variation may affect the cultural production and cause financial losses to farmers. Individual growth variation may result from genetic and environmental differentiation.

Dong et al. Pei et al. However, the genetic factor was thought to be more effective than stocking density [ 6 ]. Liang et al. The result showed that the coefficient of variation in body weight increased from Although advances have been achieved in the environmental study of sea cucumber individual growth variation, there is very limited information in terms of mechanisms and molecules involved in the processes.

The advent of next-generation RNA sequencing e. Using RNA-Seq technology, transcriptomic information have been obtained to identify the growth-related genes in aquatic species such as Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus [ 12 ], Abalone Haliotis midae [ 13 ] and the swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus [ 14 ]. In sea cucumber, these technologies have been used to understand transcriptomic information, focusing on different biological issues such as skin ulceration syndrome, regeneration and aestivation [ 15 — 17 ]. However, very little is known regarding the transcriptomic information involved in the sea cucumber individual growth variation.

In the present study, the body wall and intestinal transcriptome of sea cucumber with different growth rate was analyzed by Illumina sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. This is the first report on characterizing the sea cucumber transcriptome with individual growth variation, aiming to identify candidate growth-related genes and investigate potential growth molecules. The results provide valuable leads for further investigation of growth mechanism in sea cucumber, and improve the current understanding of individual growth variation.

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Sea cucumber handling was conducted in accordance with the guidelines and regulations established by Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute and the local government. The field studies did not involve endangered or protected species.

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The individuals in each tank were from the same population, and there are three different populations for each of one-age and two-age individuals. All of the individuals in six tanks were cultured under the same conditions for one or two years. All of the operations in this study were carried out in Liaoning Ocean and Fisheries Science Research Institute, and the permission had been given to conduct this study. Equal amount of RNA from five individuals in each group were pooled as one sample, and three libraries were made for each group [ 18 ].

The index codes were added to attribute sequence to each sample. Transcriptome sequencing of the library preparations was carried out on an Illumina HiSeq platform by Novogene Beijing, China to obtain paired-end reads S1 Fig. Clean data were obtained by removing reads containing adapter, ploy-N and low quality reads from raw data through in-house perl scripts, and assembled into contigs using Trinity [ 19 , 20 ]. Q20, Q30 and GC-content of data were calculated for downstream analyses.

NCBI blast 2. HMMER 3.

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GO annotation was carried by Blast2GO version 2. Gene expression levels based on read counts obtained by RSEM version v1. Growth variation related genes were manually identified according to annotation in different signaling pathways. Trinity software was also used to predict protein coding sequences CDSs. Each sample was run in triplicate along with the internal control gene. A dissolution curve analysis of the amplification products was performed to confirm the specificity of the Real-time PCR products.

The software Primer 3 was used to design primer of each SSR.

Compared with dinucleotide, of which the minimum number of repetitions was set at six, trinucleotide, tetranucleotide, pentanucleotide, and hexanucleotide were set at five. The maximum difference between two SSRs was set at bp.

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Picard-tools v1. This sequencing run produced about 3. From the trimmed and size-selected reads, transcripts were assembled using the Trinity. The length of transcripts ranged from to with N50 of These transcripts are subsequently assembled into unigenes, with N50 of , and average length of All unigenes were subjected to annotation analysis by matching sequences against 7 databases.

In detail, 19, unigenes Of , unigene sequences, 28, A large number of unigenes Each annotated sequence is assigned at least one GO term. The x-axis represents GO subcategories. The left y-axis indicates the percentage of genes.

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