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An Introduction to Marxist Economic Theory Paperback – June 1, This item:An Introduction to Marxist Economic Theory by Ernest Mandel Paperback $ Capital: Volume 1: A Critique of Political Economy (Penguin.
Table of contents
Paper money is, in this model, a representation of gold or silver, almost without value of its own but held in circulation by state decree. Some subjects of labour are available directly from Nature: uncaught fish, unmined coal, etc.
Others are results of a previous stage of production; these are known as raw materials, such as flour or yarn. Workshops, canals, and roads are considered instruments of labour. Capital , I, VII, 1. Coal for boilers, oil for wheels, and hay for draft horses is considered raw material, not instruments of labour. The subjects of labour and instruments of labour together are called the means of production.
Relations of production are the relations human beings adopt toward each other as part of the production process. In capitalism, wage labour and private property are part of the relations of production. According to Marx, the amount of actual product i. It has tended to increase under capitalism. This is due to increase in the scale of enterprise, to specialisation of labour, and to the introduction of machinery.
The immediate result of this is that the value of a given item tends to decrease, because the labour time necessary to produce it becomes less.
In a given amount of time, labour produces more items, but each unit has less value; the total value created per time remains the same. This means that the means of subsistence become cheaper; therefore the value of labour power or necessary labour time becomes less. If the length of the working day remains the same, this results in an increase in the surplus labour time and the rate of surplus value. Technological advancement tends to increase the amount of capital needed to start a business, and it tends to result in an increasing preponderance of capital being spent on means of production constant capital as opposed to labour variable capital.
Marx called the ratio of these two kinds of capital the composition of capital. Marxian economics has been built upon by many others, beginning almost at the moment of Marx's death. The second and third volumes of Das Kapital were edited by his close associate Friedrich Engels , based on Marx's notes. The Marxian value theory and the Perron-Frobenius theorem on the positive eigenvector of a positive matrix  are fundamental to mathematical treatments of Marxian economics. Much of the critique of classical Marxian economics came from Marxian economists that revised Marx's original theory, or by the Austrian school of economics.
ISBN 13: 9780091729998
Dmitriev, writing in ,  Ladislaus von Bortkiewicz , writing in —07,  and subsequent critics claimed that Marx's value theory and law of the tendency of the rate of profit to fall are internally inconsistent. In other words, the critics allege that Marx drew conclusions that actually do not follow from his theoretical premises. Once these alleged errors are corrected, his conclusion that aggregate price and profit are determined by, and equal to, aggregate value and surplus value no longer holds true.
This result calls into question his theory that the exploitation of workers is the sole source of profit. Whether the rate of profit in capitalism has, as Marx predicted, tended to fall is a subject of debate. Okishio, in , devised a theorem Okishio's theorem showing that if capitalists pursue cost-cutting techniques and if the real wage does not rise, the rate of profit must rise. The inconsistency allegations have been a prominent feature of Marxian economics and the debate surrounding it since the s.
Proponents of the Temporal Single System Interpretation TSSI of Marx's value theory claim that the supposed inconsistencies are actually the result of misinterpretation; they argue that when Marx's theory is understood as "temporal" and "single-system," the alleged internal inconsistencies disappear. In a recent survey of the debate, a proponent of the TSSI concludes that "the proofs of inconsistency are no longer defended; the entire case against Marx has been reduced to the interpretive issue.
Large part of the criticism of the Marxian economics comes from contradictions observed in countries declaring allegiance to the Marxist economical and political doctrine in the 20th century. Dembinsky pointed out at inconsistent approach of Marx to determining "labor value", a central concept in the labor theory of value, which led to significant decline of effectiveness of these economies.
Marxist economics was assessed as lacking relevance in by Robert M. Solow , who criticized the New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics for over-sampling articles on Marxist themes, giving a "false impression of the state of play" in the economics profession. Solow stated that "Marx was an important and influential thinker, and Marxism has been a doctrine with intellectual and practical influence.
The fact is, however, that most serious English-speaking economists regard Marxist economics as an irrelevant dead end. The terms Neo-Marxian , Post-Marxian , and Radical Political Economics were first used to refer to a distinct tradition of economic thought in the s and s. In industrial economics , the Neo-Marxian approach stresses the monopolistic rather than the competitive nature of capitalism.
Marxian economics - Wikipedia
Baran and Paul Sweezy. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Capital controversy Crisis theory Economic determinism Immiseration thesis Historical materialism Okishio's theorem Overaccumulation Overdetermination Overproduction Kondratiev wave Technological determinism Technological unemployment Temporal single-system interpretation.
A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy. Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of The Theory of Capitalist Development. Cambridge Journal of Economics. International Journal of Political Economy. Related topics. Evolutionary economics Classical economics Marxism Marxist sociology Neoclassical economics Perspectives on capitalism Political economy Schools of economic thought Socialist economics Critiques of capitalism.
Theoretical works. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon. Economic determinism Historical materialism Marx's dialectic Marx's method Philosophy of nature. Index Outline Category. History Branches Classification. History of economics Schools of economics Mainstream economics Heterodox economics Economic methodology Economic theory Political economy Microeconomics Macroeconomics International economics Applied economics Mathematical economics Econometrics.
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Main article: Criticisms of Marxism. See also: Criticisms of Socialism , Criticisms of Communist party rule , and Criticisms of the labour theory of value. See also: Neo-Marxian economics and Neo-Marxism. List of Marxian economists Capitalist mode of production Capital accumulation Evolutionary economics Surplus labour Labour power Law of value Unequal exchange Value product Productive and unproductive labour Regulation school Socialist economics The Accumulation of Capital Material product.
Economics: Marxian versus Neoclassical. The Johns Hopkins University Press. Marxian theory singular gave way to Marxian theories plural. If you have an ebook reader or a Kindle, check out our guide to using ebook readers with libcom.